Otázka: History of GB
1) Pre Celtic
Before 800 BC
Stonehenge(around 100 standing stones forming 2 circles We do not know, what is it. maybe shrine, where were people going to get healed (svatině) or barn (stodola)), stone circles, centrum = Salisbury = plain including Stonehenge, burial chambers (pohřební komory) Avebury = largest area
2) Celtic = Gael
800BC – 43 AD
Came from northern and central Europe, many tribes (one of them Brythons = origin of name of GB) Celtic languages Breton in Brittany Gaelic in Ireland, Tribal society head = chief, believe in Natural forces = pagans (priest = druid ?human sacrifices? Sacred(posvátné) plants oak mistletoe)
hill forts warriors
43 AD – 5th century
Romans invaded Gb, because there were huge amount of natural resources especially silver and copper. There were 2 invasions 1st 55BC leaded by Caesar only plundered (vydrnacovali) Britain. 2nd leaded by Claudius conquer Britain and made it Roman province. In Britain were many uprising most known is rebellion leaded by Boudica. Roman establish many cities(Manchester Worcester(“wostr”) Winchester London…, “cester” came from Latin word “castra”, which means military camp, ruins of villas, city Bath, where were famous Roman Baths(hot springs = horké prameny)
5th century – 1066
When Romans leave GB German tribes start settling it. Tribes were Angles, Saxon and Jutes. They origin 7 Kingdoms (: East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Mercia, Northumbria, Sussex and Wessex) Most important was Wessex and Mercia. Christianity came to Brittany in 6th century. From the 8th century Vikings(Norseman) became raiding and conquering Brittany. 9th century the King of Wessex Alfred the great defended the last independent Anglo – Saxon Kingdom- Wessex and successfully pushed Vikings back(after that was England divided to 2 parts 1) Danelaw 2) Wessex and its dependencies) until 10th, century when king Canute made from England part of the North Sea Empire. Vikings had big impact to English Language.
Ethelred the Unready – alliance with Normans
Edward the Confessor founded Westminster Abey, on his dead 3 candidates to crown
1) Harold Godwinson(local guy) – crowned
2) Harald Hardrada (Viking)
3) William of Normandy
Vikings landed near Stamford Bridge Godwinson moved his Army to Stamford Bridge -Vikings was defeated. Soon after that William landed in Brittany too. Godwinson moved his Army to Hastings battle of Hastings- Normandy won. Normans have nice archery. Bayeux Tapestry(výšivka, která zobrazuje bitvu a co jí předcházelo) William of Normandy was crowned as William 1st known too as William Conqueror. Normans speak French, so Nobility speak French, this had big impact to English language. Lot of castles build including Tower of London. Domesday book written -1st census (první sčítání lidu dobytka…) all under rule of William of Normandy.
Plantagenets dynasty (12th century)
Richard the Lion Hearth – most of his live spend on Crusade.
After Richard 1st died his brother John 1st the Lackland succeed to throne- he lost most of the English land in France and he signed(podepsal) Magna Charta- document which limit the power of king and get more power to aristocrats
100 years war (1337 – 1453) French side Joan of Ark battle of Crecy- Czech king Jan from Luxembourg died 1348 black dead plague- big disaster at least 1/3 of population died
Civil war- wars of the Roses 1455-1485 famous war between house of Leicester(red rose) and house of York(white roses). Final battle of Boswort the Yorks were defeated. Henry Tudor-leader of Leicester side succeed to throne- he marry Elisabeth from York and he became king Henry 7th (Tudors ruled England to 18th century) 2 sons Arthur and Henry. Arthur married Catherine of Aragon after year Arthur died, so Catherine married Henry the 8th Catherine was unable to give him son, so he after 20 years of marriage Henry fell in love to Ann Boleyn. Henry asked Rome for permission to annulment marriage with Catherine. Pope say no. Henry the 8th origin the Church of England(1534) and he become head of the church. He dissolution(?zrušit?) the monastery and confiscated everything. He married Ann Boleyn. She born daughter to him. He believed, that she is witch. He get rid of her. Byla obviněna z cizoložství. Ann and many people, which king does not like was executed. Henry married 14th days after execution Jane Seymour. Jane Seymour born him son, Edward. Jane Seymour died about week after born son. His advisors want him to marry again. He marry German protestant princes Ann of Cleves- he never see her before marry. When he saw her he do not like her. He got really angry. He want get out of the marriy. She agreed with divorce. She became rich and have nice live in England. He fell in love with Catherine Howard. It was too about politics. He married she, he loved her much. She was probably cheating him, so she was arrested and executed. He made codex, that women, which want marry king must be virgin. His last wife was Catherine Parr. She survived him. After Henry the 8th die there was problem with heir. Edward 6th was 10 years old, so regency council. Edward died in 16. Big confusion. Most people supported Mary the 1st. Mary become the queen. She was known as bloody Marry. She was persecuting protestants. She marry Phillip of Spain. They had no kids. After she died Elisabeth become the queen. Elisabethan. Elisabeth = virgin queen. 1588 Spanish Armada. 1st NA colonies – virginia. After dead of Eli the house of Stuart succeed to throne. The first king James the 1st. Personal union with Scotland. Ten příběh o Mariii Stuartovně je zajímavý, mamé tam lásku atentán popravu, ale teďka na to nemáme čas.
Divine Rule strong Aristocracy Strong middle class during second Stuart king-Charles the 1st. During his rule was big disagreement with king- England was dividet to Royalist and parliament(dividet to Presbyterians(wanna compromise) and Independent(no compromise puritance they wanted to return the church to start no decorations..)). The head of independence was Cromwell civil war ?1640-49? Cromwell won. New model Army – officers was most qualified soldiers. England become republic(the Commonwealth)1649-60 the head Cromwell Lord protector. When Cromwell died his son Richard become Lord protector. He was weak the whole country was unhappy. The want king back. The offered the crown to Charles(60-86) the 2nd (son of Charles the 1st ) 1665 big plague 1666 Great fire of London. Brother of Charles James the 2nd become the king. He wanted to restore absolutism and Catholicism in England. The parliament offer the crown to William of Orange(the 3rd)(Glorious Revolution). He accept it. James the 2nd escaped to Ireland.
Willim had no kids- so to throne succeed sister of Wiliams wife(Mary)-queen Ann. Act of settlement-no catholic or someone marry to catholic can be ruler. She has no children. The Crown get Hanoverians(1714) George the 1st succed to throne. George 1st as well as George 2nd speak no English- so they need prime minister to communicate English. 1789 French revolution. Napoleonic wars the English was against France. 1805 naval battle of Trafalgar, they fought French in Spain. Final battle of Waterloo. Queen Victoria(1836-1901) Victorian age. She married her cousin Albert of Saton – Coburg Gotha(same dynasty as today) changed name in 1914 to Windsor.
Victorian age: British Empire, steam machine, railroads London underground. Change the livestyle. Urbanisation. Dirty city. Pea soup(žlutý jedovatý smog). Charles Darwin. Charles Dickens(famous writer) David Livingstone. Jack the Ripper. Lot of new buildings Royal Albert haul Victoria Station
1851 world exhibition in London. Viktoria = Grandmother of Europe- many kids nad many royal marriages(with the many royal houses in Europe) 20th century Great War 1914-18. Big economic boom after ww1. Big crisis in from 1929.Crisis in 1936 new king Edward the 8th started to rule, but he ruled only for then year. He love bad women(twice devorced American). Parlament give him choose. He abdicated and leave GB. George the 6th (dad of the now rulling queen)
ww2 Munich Pact(Chamberlein) Sudetenland. 1939 official begginig of ww2. After the fall of the France. Sealion(plan of the operation). 1940 Battle of Britan July-October 1944 Overlord. After ww2 become losing colonies last 1997 Honkong to China. Falkland war ?1981? Marget Thatcher(Iron lady).
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