Tuto maturitní otázku z anglického jazyka nám zaslala Ada365, děkujeme. Další maturitní otázky z angličtiny najdete zde.
- Capital: Washington D.C.
- Area: North America (third largest country in the world)
- Population: 328,2 millions
- Nationalities: Afroameričané – 12,1 % (asi 34,9 milionu) Asijští Američané – 4,3 % (12,5 milionu) Američtí indiáni – 0,8 % (2,4 milionu) Havajci a ostatní pacifičtí ostrované – 0,1 % (0,4 milionu), European (white) 82%
- Languages: English, Spanish
- Political system: Federative constitutional republic (federativní ustavní repulibka)
- Head of state: Joe Biden
- Law-making body (zákonodárný organ): something that makes laws
- Congress consists of House of Representatives and Senate
- Date of foundation: 4. 7. 1776
Why is the USA sometimes called “the melting pot” or “the salad bowl”?
The “melting pot” metaphor is used to describe how immigrants who come to America eventually become assimilated into American culture, thus creating multiple cultures that have blended into one. The “salad bowl” metaphor is a different view describing that immigrants who come to America combine their cultures with others, but still retain their own cultural identity. Basically, America is one big integration of unique, distinct cultures.
In 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered the American continent. He was looking for a saver way to India so when he landed on an island in the Caribbean Columbus believed that he had landed on the coast of India and named the people there Indians. However, the continent is named after Amerigo Vespucci, another Italian explorer who made many voyages to South America and wrote detailed descriptions of the New World.
The USA consist of 50 states, the Federal District of Columbia and outlying US territories such as Puerto Rico, the Panama Canal Zone, Virgin Islands and several islands in the South Pacific. The US is bounded in the west by Pacific Ocean, in the north by Mexico/Canada, in the east by Atlantic Ocean and in the south by Canada/Mexico. There are 48 states between these borders. Alaska, which became the 49th state in 1959 occupies the north-western part of the North American continent and is separated from the continental US by Canada. Hawaii, which became the 50th state in the same year, is situated approximately half-way between American and Asian continent.
The largest state is Alaska, the second largest is Texas. The smallest state is Rhode Island. The longest river is Mississippi (6 400km). The highest mountain is Denali (Mount McKinley) in Alaska. The lowest point is Death Valley in Eastern California (86 metres below the sea level).
Landscape and climate
There are two great mountain ranges in the USA: the Appalachian Mountains on the east coast and Sierra Nevada Rocky Mountain in the west, both running from north to south.
The Atlantic seacoast is mountainous and rocky in the north-east. In the south there is a wide coastal plain between the mountains and the sea.
Half of the USA lies between the mountains. These interior plains include Central Lowland, Great Lakes section and the Great Plain. This region is drained by the Mississippi and its eight branches. This Mississippi valley is one of the greatest fertile plains on the earth. Extensive areas of prairies are found in its south-western part.
The Great Lakes Region in the north has also fertile lands and the most fertile region in the west is the Central Valley of California.
One third of the land is covered with forests.
There is tundra in Alaska and the Hawaii islands are volcanic tropical islands.
The climate varies along with the landscape. The weather ranges from the warm, wet conditions of the Appalachians to the desert conditions in some of the western states. It varies from almost winterless climates in Arizona and Florida to long and very cold winters in Montana and the Dakota. The warm Gulf Stream flowing from Florida influences the climate of the Atlantic seacoast.
Rivers and lakes
The rivers entering the Atlantic between the St Lawrence and the Gulf of Mexico are short. They are: the Hudson, the Delaware, the Potomac and so on.
The main river entering the Gulf of Mexico is the Mississippi. Together with its principal tributary, the Missouri, the Mississippi is over 6,000km long. Other tributaries are The Ohio, the Red river, the Arkansas and etc.
Another river that flows into the Gulf of Mexico is the Rio Grande, which form the border between the USA and Mexico.
The Great Lakes Region includes five lakes in the north east: Ontario, Erie, Michigan, Superior and Huron. The river Niagara, flowing between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, forms the Niagara Falls.
4 of the lakes form water border between Canada and the USA. The only American lake is Lake Michigan.
Look at the abbreviations of some American states and write their full name:
AZ Arizona NY New York
CA California OH Ohio
FL Florida MT Montana
UT Utah (solné jezezo)
The UK and the USA are said to be two countries divided by common language. There are differences between British and American English in vocabulary, spelling, grammar, stress (přízvuk), pronunciation and intonation.
What are the American English words for the following British words?
Chips – French fries
Petrol – gas, gasoline
Shopping centre – (shopping center) mall
Flat – apartment
Secondary school – high school
Return ticket – round-trip ticket (zpáteční jízdenka)
Underground – subway
Football – soccer
Film – movie
Holiday – vacation
toilet – rest room
Washington D.C. is the capital of the US, situated on the north-east coast of the USA on the Potomac River, in the District of Columbia. The site of the capital was chosen by President Washington himself because he knew this area very well. The city was designed by French architect Pierre L’Enfant in the late 18th century. The city was divided into 4 quadrants (northwest, southwest, and northeast, southeast) with the Capitol as the centre. The main industry in Washington is the Federal Government, the second is tourism.
There are three important buildings in Washington:
- The White House: it is official seat of the president
- The Capitol: it is the meeting place of the US legislature/congers
- The Pentagon: it is the seat of the Ministry of Defence in the US state of Virginia
The top landmarks (apart from the above mentioned buildings) situated in Washington D.C. are: Washington Monument, Smithsonian Institution, National Mall, National Air and Space Museum
Jefferson Memorial, Lincoln Memorial and Washington monument
Can you name any American presidents? (6)
Joe Biden, Donald Trump, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush
What is there on the American flag? Why? Flag has thirteen horizontal stripes (seven red and six white) and a blue canton (seven stripes wide), in which are placed fifty white five-pointed stars in nine rows (alternating five and six stars). The bars represent the thirteen original, founding states of the Union, the stars the current number of states of the Union.
What is the flag sometimes called? The Stars and Stripes
Broadway: is a theatre in New York, was opened on Christmas Day 1924, also a street where other 40t theatres are
Wall Street: is a street in the southern part of Manhattan Island, is the headquarters of the New York Stock Exchange and other businesses and banks, financial heart
Manhattan: is an island off the east coast of the United States, in the state of New York at the mouth of the Hudson River. What else why is it famous
Times Square: is a large intersection and area between Broadway and Seventh Avenue, part of the Manhattan portion of Midtown Manhattan, Times Square is home to a number of companies, there is a lot of billboards
Central Park: is a large public city park, the largest city park in the United States, this park is visited by 25 million people a year
5th avenue: is the main street in the centre of Manhattan in New York, there are also lots of shops, it is the most famous and most expensive street in New York
Ellis Island (Island of tears): is an island at the mouth of the Hudson River near New York City, why is it famous?
The Statue of Liberty: is a statue standing on Liberty Island near New York City, The statue is 46 meters high more
General Overview of California
California is one of the most visited states of the USA and i tis situated in the South-west of the country. The state is nicknamed The Golden State because of the Gold Rush period. San Francisco and Los Angeles are major cities and Hollywood is famous for its film stars. Oregon, Nevada, Arizona and Mexico in the south are neighbour states. It has a long coastline bordering the Pacific Ocean. That’s why the climate is mild . Geographically speaking, mountain i tis a land of contrasts: in the North, the eye discovers the Rocky mountains – the Highest is Mount Whitney reaching 4222 metres – whereas in the south, a huge desert is stretching out. Alcatraz is a well-known prison reserved to tough gangsters and murderers. Finally, let us not forget the Silicon Valley, the place where Apple started making computers a few years ago.
is a multi – carved meander of the Colorado River, located in Arizona
Yellowstone National Park
Located in the US states of Wyoming, Montana and Idaho, it is the oldest national park in the world, there is the Old Faithful geyser
Interesting places, facts
The United States has 62 protected areas known as national parks. Yellowstone is the first established NP in the world and the oldest in the US. It was established in 1872 and it is a UNESCO world heritage site. It is located in the western US, with parts in Wyoming, Montana and Idaho. The park is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features, especially Old Faithful Geyser.
Other famous NP:
Yosemite, Everglades, Grand Canyon, Death Valley, Glacier, Rocky mountain, Acadia, Arches, Great Smoky mountains, Olympic and so on
Choose one NP in the USA and write something more about it – name, location, when established, famous for/what we can see there
Glacier National Park is located in Montana, USA, on the border with the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. It has an area of more than 4000 square meters. There are two ridges of the Rocky Mountains and more than 130 lakes. Together with the Canadian Waterton Lakes Park, it is part of the UNESCO World Natural Heritage as the „Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park“.
Another well-known natural attraction is The Niagara Falls.
San Francisco: San Francisco is a city on the west coast of the USA in the California. The city is famous for its cold summers, fog, steep hills, the Golden Gate Bridge and the former prison on the island of Alcatraz. The city is called one of the most beautiful cities in the world, definitely worth a visiting.
There is a cableway in the streets.
New Orleans: New Orleans is one of the most important port cities in the United States, as well as the largest city in Louisiana and one of the most important cities in the southern United States. The city lies on the Mississippi River south of Lake Pontchartrain, through which you can reach the city by the second longest bridge in the world, Lake Pontchartrain Causeway. There is a great risk of flooding. In 2005, the city was hit by Hurricane Katrina, and there were also major floods. There are many monuments that people visit. Music style in New Orleans is jazz. (kélébka jazzu). On the Bourbon Street we find a lot of bars, clubs and enjoy.
Chicago: Chicago is located in the state of Illinois on the shores of Lake Michigan. For political reasons, the city is nicknamed Windy City and thanks to the large number of parks, the city is also nicknamed City in a Garden. The city is very green and clean compared to other cities. There are many very tall skyscrapers. Trump Tower, Willis Tower, Aon Centre. There are many interesting places that are worth seeing, for example, Shedd Aquarium, which fascinated me.
Las Vegas: Las Vegas is the largest city in the state of Nevada in the USA. The entire Las Vegas area is best known for its nightlife. The Las Vegas Strip is 6.8 km away. There are 18 of the 25 largest hotels in the world and many casinos. The city is also known from many movies. There are a lot of deserts, weddings, chapels, gambling and concerts.
Grand Canyon: it is a national park situated in Arizona. It is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River. It is about 446 km long, 29 km wide and almost 2 km deep. You can go rafting, hiking and running there, helicopter tours are also popular. The rocks change their colour because they are of a different origin – sandstone, limestone…
Great Salt Lake: also situated in Utah is the largest salt lake in the USA. You can’t really swim there because there is too much salt – you can only float. It is saltier than the ocean.
Salt Lake City – winter Olympic Games in 2002
Hoover Dam: is a concrete dam on the Colorado River on the borders of Nevada and Arizona. It was constructed during the Great Depression (velká hospodářská krize) and provided jobs to thousands of workers. It protected the area from floods and it was also the biggest water power station at that time. It is very famous because it has appeared in a number of American films.
Další podobné články na webu: